Mechanism of Action

PINT has a dual mechanism of action in which NanoJackets deliver Indocyanine Green (ICG), a well-known FDA approved fluorophore, to the interior of tumor cells.  Once inside the cell, illumination with harmless near Infrared Light (nIR), using an nIR emitting catheter or other devices, excites the ICG causing production of Reactive Oxygenated Species (ROS) that kill the targeted cancer cells.  PINT induces extremely high efficiency Photo Dynamic Therapy (PDT) that does not suffer the drawbacks of standard PDT, which include use of low efficiency photosensitizers and sensitization of the patient’s entire body to visible light.  PINT also induces production of a bioactive lipid (dihydro sphingosine-1-phosphate) that reduces inflammation in the tumor microenvironment and triggers T-cell attack on the tumor.  


Results with PINT

PINT is an unusually elegant system that has demonstrated high levels of efficacy in multiple cancer types without imparting any toxicity.  Its lack of toxicity is not surprising given its components are biocompatible calcium and phosphate, ICG (which is also non-toxic and is approved for human use) and harmless nIR light.


The graphics below show that PINT has achieved disease free survival and significant tumor regression in numerous cancer models.

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PINT achieved 29% disease free survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) with only 3 doses of actively targeted NJs (left panel).  PINT prevented growth in a breast cancer model with only 1 dose of passively targeted NJs (right panel).

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Passively targeted PINT achieved a 64% reductio in tumor volume in a pancreatic cancer model and a 47% extension in survival in a lung cancer model.